Capraia Island is a municipality in the administrative area of Livorno, corresponding to the homonymous island. Capraia island is located in the Corsica Channel, off of Piombino promontory, 35 miles south-west of Livorno. Capraia is a volcanic island, about 8 km long and 4 wide, covering an area of 19.26 km2. It presents high and rocky coasts with no beaches, in the innermost presents mountainous peaks with heights of over 400 meters. In the southern tip there are the remains of an ancient volcano, no longer active, exploded in ancient times. The island is part of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park. The vegetation is rich and presents some rare endemic species. From the administrative point of view, the island has its own municipality, the Capraia Island Municipality, the smallest in Tuscany. Capraia Island is the only small town in the area.
Capraia Island takes its livelihood primarily from tourism, attracted by the rugged beauty of the places. It is not a mass tourism island, it has a fairly low receptivity concentrated from spring to autumn. In the Island there are only three residences, a hotel, a campground and several restaurants and the port has been designed for small ships. Tourists who arrive on site have the opportunity to make adventure sports such as underwater fishing. The rocky and rugged terrain nature that characterizes the island of Capraia has meant that the local economy was always very poor, based on fishing and on a limited agricultural production, consisting of a lower grain production and a good winery production. Today the weight of these traditional occupations is negligible, whereas it is an island flagship vine cultivation, which continues to drive a good wine production.
Capraia is part of "Natura 2000" network, as a site of Community importance, according to the CEE regulation 92/4; more recently Capraia is also part of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park, established in July 22, 1996 by the President of the Republic Decree, and which includes six other islands: Gorgona, Elba, Pianosa, Montecristo, Giglio and Giannutri, called the "Seven Gems of tirreno – the Pearls of Tuscan Archipelago" with its 60,000 hectares of sea. The Tuscan Archipelago National Park is the largest marine park in Europe. In addition, the entire archipelago was a candidate for the certification of the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism proposing strategic objectives as the improvement of sustainable development, the tourism management in protected areas, the growth of knowledge and support for protected areas in Europe.
Capraia is the first "green island" of Italy, it can provide electricity for the 467 low voltage residences of the island with summer peaks of around 2,000 presences through innovative elettrodiesel plant, which consists of four new generators with a total capacity 2000 kW, powered exclusively by biodiesel fuel. A new power station was also carried in order to connect the plant with the network of the island, formed by 4 new transformers of 800 kVA each, made in resin, without mineral oil, and thus without risk to the environment; also switches and equipment were created according to the highest environmental standards. Also with regard to waste management, the island is well known by its strong focus on recycling and awareness campaigns aimed at increasing citizens consciousness on the topic.
Capraia Island is a flagship of the entire Tuscan Archipelago in environmental sustainability. In fact there are several prizes and awards won by the municipality to the various initiatives for the Environment protection. In particular Capraia Island was selected by the "Blue Guide 2011", among the fourteen locations that better protect and support the territory. This is the highest award for administrations that combine land care, service quality and sustainability. Another award is the "Premio Toscana eco-efficiente", awarded at the beginning of the project "Capraia Green Island", in which Enel company have implemented an innovative and efficient energy model of electricity generation with low environmental impact through the implementation of an innovative elettrodiesel central.